1/17/14

休对故人思故国

关于上周末抄那段书,断断续续有一些不成熟的想法如下:
一、关于技术驱动或资本流通全球化趋势之下,带来一种文化层面上的「大同」危机的问题,以及目前仍不居于霸权地位的区域性文化该如何应对的问题。Auerbach对学者在其中能起到的作用相当谨慎,甚至悲观。但仍需要继续工作的原因之一是,哪怕目前无法遏制同质化的潮流,至少人文研究能保有一部分左右未来的可能性。另外,同质化必然带来敌对与憎恨。「至少不要盲目地去恨你的敌人,即使你必须与它战斗。」

二、作为没有受过传统学术训练、半路出家的学者,又身处于一片「再无大师」的哀叹中间,如何坚信学术研究的智识价值,与其在新时期仍能开辟的新境界。在这一点上Auerbach谈到的两点,似乎与我导几年来一直在推行的理念契合,亦即:其一,以古典学作为教育基石的时代已经过去,现代教育机构必须提供不一样的东西,并接受学生成长环境中的差异性;其二,研究要从一个具体而实在的问题入手,然后带着问题去学习你需要的知识与技能,是语言文字也好、是田野观察也好,甚至建设数据库,所有学科性的训练都因为对问题出发点本身的兴趣而变得有意思,且更容易牢固掌握。从这两点出发,得到的推论就是,不需要先变成书橱,才能开始作研究。然而这种方式,或许更适合于如美国博士培养计划这种比较长的时间周期(五年或以上)。如果社会教育资源不允许让一个初学者慢慢找到兴趣、再掌握研究能力,也许这样一种切入人文研究的方式,在学院外可以另辟出一套以亲和力见长的生产与接受体系。

三、如何用异文化的工具与语言,去做母国文化的研究,以及工作与学者自身认同的关系。究竟何处是故国,是否最终只有故国之人才可以理解故国;是否必要用另外一种语言,去进入「前民族-国家」时代的文化,去阐释彼时的人与物之存在与意义。Auerbach让我更加相信其价值,并在这个忽暖忽寒的异国冬天,乡愁汹涌来袭的旧年末尾,工作前景悬而未决的漫长当口--坚持把手上的这一点东西,一个字一个字地敲出来。

俨然又是一个星期末尾。买了甜蜜的无花果蛋糕,坐在厨房里写这几行字,烤箱里有肉咝咝作响。一定要坚持下去。

1/12/14

1.12 抄书 Auerbach 六十年前谈研究与为学

Erich Auerbach, "The Philology of World Literature" (1952)
英译者Jane O. Newman, in , ed. James I. Porter (Princeton University Press 2014), 253-266.

按:Auerbach此文写作于1952年,冷战阴云笼罩下的土耳其。
……
In general, however, as I stated at the outset, different cultures have begun to resemble one another much more rapidly and completely these days than a humanist of the Goethean persuation might want to endorse.  And there appears to be no reasonable likelihood that any such differences as remain between the cultures will be able to be settled by any means other than force.  The idea of world literature that I am proposing here, which conceives of world literature as a diverse backdrop to a common human fate, no longer seeks, then, to achieve what is in any case already underway (even if it is happening entirely differently than one might have hoped).  I accept as inevitable that world culture is in the process of becoming standardized.

总而言之,像我在文章开头所指出的那样,如今不同的文化之间变得越来越相似,其速度之快、与程度之完全,恐怕很难让一位歌德式的人文学者接受。而这些残存的文化差异,却很难以武力之外的其它方式取得妥协。我在此所提出的「世界文学」这一概念--我把它设想为衬托人类共同命运的斑斓布景--也就因此没有必要再去争取一个反正已经在发生的事实,尽管它发生的方式完全不是我想要看到的。我只好接受它作为事实:世界文化正在走向标准化的路上一去不返。

But I do hope that my understanding of world literature will allow those nations that are in the midst of this fateful convergence to focus with greater precision on what is happening to them in these, their last productive moments of variety and difference, so that they can remain mindful of the process and make it part of their own mythologies.  If they do so, their awareness of the abundance and depth of intellectual and spiritual developments over the past millennia will not wither and die.  It would be fruitless even to speculate about what long-term impact such an effort might have; the task at hand is only to create the possibility that it might have one. ... It might even help us accept what is happening to us with greater composure, and allow us to not despise our enemies all too blindly, even when it is our mission to fight them.  In this sense, my idea of world literature and its corresponding philology is no less human and no less humanistic than its predecessor.

但我仍希望--我所理解的世界文学能够让这些正走向归一化的宿命之路上的国族更为准确地体察正在发生的事情,在这最后体现他们之间多样化与差异的时刻,好让他们一直记得这个过程,并将其编入自己的神话里。如能这样,他们也就不会轻易地把自己民族在过去千年内累积的深厚智识与灵知一旦忘却。现在甚至还都不是预测研究世界文学的这些工作能有什么长远影响的时候;我们目前的任务仅仅是为其将来可能有的影响创造一点可能性。……这样的工作还可能帮助我们更镇定地面对正在发生的一切,并且让我们不要过于盲目地憎恨我们的敌人--即使我们不得不与他们斗争。这样说来,我对世界文学以及其所对应的语言学的期望与它的前身(歌德)一样,是立足于人的人文主义。

===
他后面又谈到,「传统古典文学训练下成长起来的老一辈学者日益凋零,而可供研究的材料又日益加增,研究在新时期应该如何继续」的问题。大概谈到如下几点:
--学海无涯,人生苦短,但学术最终仍是每个人自己去求证悟道的过程,合作在某些情形下很必要,但不能代替学者自身的成长。
--百科全书式的学习已经不合用了,因为没有人能够漫无目的地识记所有东西。但如果一边提出问题,一边学习,所学到的东西则因为合用而容易被牢记。
--决定研究的起点(Ansatzpunkt)最重要,也最困难。忍不住再抄一段:
(p.262) In order to conduct a large synthetic project, it is necessary to find a starting point, a tangible hook, as it were, that allows one to lay hold of one's object of study.  This point must single out a clearly circumscribed and easily surveyed set of phenomena.  And the interpretation of these phenomena must possess an illuminating power that is sufficient to organize and interpret a far broader range of phenomena than the point from which it started.

要作一项综合性的研究,必须先找到一个起点,一个具体的引子,让人能够找到研究的具体对象。这个起点必须能够引出一组边界清晰而容易概览的现象。而学者对于这组现象的阐释则必须拥有一种明彻的力量,能够让他/她对某些比起点更宽泛的历史现象作出组织与解释。

--好的起点可能有很多种,但绝不应该是完全基于一种对“典型”或学界术语的讨论(因为只能证实或证伪一个空的预设),除非在某一上下文中,能够用材料来支撑某术语的所指。更多的情况下,好的起点起源于令人困惑的现象,或能够用语言学术语描述的具体例子。越切实的起点,往后越能有发散的启示。
--“事物本身应能在研究中有发言权。”
--“陈词滥调总是在前方潜伏着等你。” They are ever ready to interject themselves into our writing as soon as we drift away from the energy that the tangible exerts.  It is thus that the occasional writer--and many readers--are led to mistake an appealing cliché for the thing itself.

与正在写论文的各位共勉。

最后一段让我看得眼眶湿润:
Yet, our philological home is the earth.  It can no longer be the nation.  The most precious and necessary thing that philologists inherit may be their national language and culture.  But it is only in losing--or overcoming--this inheritance that it can have this effect.  We must now turn -- albeit under different conditions -- to what the pre-nation-state culture of the Middle Ages already possessed, to the knowledge that the human spirit itself is not national.

但是,地球终究是我们语言的家园,而不是某个国家。每个语言学者最珍贵和必要的财富是她/他所继承的民族语言与文化,但只有放弃它--或者超越它--之后,这笔遗产才能真正变得珍贵和有用。虽然境况各异,但我们必须转向中世纪已经有过的前民族-国家时代的文化,也必须明白:人文精神本身不是民族特有的。
……(Hugh of Saint Victor, Didascalicon 3.20)
"The man who finds his homeland sweet is still a tender beginner; he to whom every soil is as his native one is already strong; but he is perfect to whom the entire world is as a foreign land."
Hugh's intended audience consisted of those individuals whose goal it was to free themselves from their love of this world.  But it is also a good path to follow for anyone who desires to secure a proper love for the world.

“弱者爱其故乡;强者四海为家;视此世界为异乡者,则近圣。”(我的翻译)
Hugh of St. Victor所面对的读者们,是一心想摆脱对此世的爱欲牵缠的人。而我们今天也许还可以沿着这条路,去追寻为了这个世界的一种适切的爱。


1/10/14

青椒塞肉

青椒四個,每個對切成兩爿,去籽。豬肉餡一小盒,用料酒、醬油、鹽、白胡椒、少許油調味。手頭正好有一小把香菜和一些泡開黑木耳,切碎,與肉餡混勻。

然後準備一個平底大鍋,熱少許油,把調好的餡填到青椒裡面去,再在肉餡一面撒上一撮麵粉或團粉,用手指抹開。然後青椒背面先入鍋,煎一分鐘後,依個人口味,往鍋裏倒少許料酒、醬油,燒開,再加一杯水,攏上蓋子大火蒸。等到看見肉餡變色,小心地把青椒一個一個翻身,大火收汁,待底面也煎得軟了,取出擺盤就好。

這個的好處是可以一次做好多,且便於分而食之,帶飯也方便。


1/1/14

2013 读书


结论是写论文不一定少看书,但申请工作一定没有时间看书…… >_<

2013 年中行事

Dec 25 Christmas dinner @ Wen's
Dec 19 Latin final, MFA trip with G
Dec 13 Lunch with qiqi in NYC Korean town
Dec 12 Interview III !
Dec 9 Interview II
Dec 7 Chamber music concert
Dec 4 practice talk and zz's talk
Nov 28 Thanksgiving @ Guo Yan's
Nov 22 Interview I during HSS
Nov 26-Dec 24 mutou visits home
Nov 21-24 Yih visit
Nov 9 Early Music concert @ St Paul Church
Oct 31 Kuang-chi defense
Oct 20 小猫失而复得 @@
Oct 16 mutou birthday / presentation @ Fairbank center
Sep 3 School starts
August 25 Ice cream walk with anpopo
August 24 Bike trip to Walden Pond
August 22 Ch 4 draft done (no notes)
August 16-18 Qiqi arrives; in NYC
August 7 Ch 2 draft done (no notes)
Aug 2-4 Ziyue couple visit
July 22-29 Trip to UK; Manchester conference
July 20 Jingshan reunion with YXF and Sen
July 13 Q&A wedding
June 24 Introduction first draft done
June 22 trip to Walden pond w/ seren &anpopo
April 29 Natalie's party
April 20, 21 Two weddings
April 19 Bizarre city shut-down
April 15 Boston Marathon bomb
April 11-14 Noriko visit
April 4-7 DC trip
March 18-19 Visit Weiwei in Richmond, VA
March 15-17 Philly WHEATS workshop
March 7 ESWG presentation
Feb 24 Chamber concert, Faure and Kodaly
Feb 17-18 Mom visit
Feb 10 Chinese new year
Feb 8-9 Blizzard!!
Feb 1 Completion grant deadline
Jan 27 Yingying visit

Jan 2 Library reopens